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初三英语阅读理解答题技巧总结归纳

初中英语 09-10 浏览量: 分享:
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  阅读理解考察主要内容


  1.考查掌握所读材料的主旨和大意的能力


  此类考查主旨和大意的题大多数针对段落(或短文)的主题,主题思想,标题或目的,其主要提问方式是:


  (1)Which is the best title of the passage?


  (2)Which of the following is this passage about?


  (3)In this passage the writer tries to tell us that______.


  (4)The passage tells us that______.


  (5)This passage mainly talks about_______.


  2考查把握文章的事实和细节的能力


  此类考查事实和细节的题目大多数是针对文章的细节设计的,其主要提问方式是:


  (1)Which of the following is right?


  (2)Which of the following is not mentioned?


  (3)Which of the following is Not True in the passage?


  (4)Choose the right order of this passage.


  (5)From this passage we know ________.


  3考查根据上下文猜测生词的含义的能力


  此类猜测词义的题目要求考生根据上下文确定某一特定的词或短语的准确含义。其主要提问方式是:


  (1)The word“”in the passage probably means ________.


  (2)The underlined word“It”in the passage refers to _______.


  (3)In this story the underlined word“”means ________.


  (4)Here“it”means________.


  4考查对阅读材料全篇的逻辑关系的理解,对文章各段,各句之间的逻辑关系的理解能力


  此类题目主要考查的是句语句之间,短语短之间的逻辑关系,其主要提问方式是:


  (1)Many visitors come to the writer’s city to ________.


  (2)Some shops can be built Donfeng Square so that they may _____.


  (3)Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution because _____.


  (4)Why did the writer get off the train two stops before Vienna station?


  5考查依据短文内容和考生应有的常识进行推理和判断的能力


  此类题目文章中没有明确的答案,需要考生再理解全文的基础上进行推理和判断。其主要提问方式是:


  (1)We can guess the writer of the letter may be a _____.


  (2)We can infer from the text that _______.


  (3)From the letters we’ve learned that it’s very _____ to know something about American social customs.


  (4)From the story we can guess ______.


  (5)What would be happy if…?


  6考查推断作者意图和态度的能力


  (1)How did the writer feel at Vienna station?


  (2)The writer writes this text to ______.


  (3)The writer believes that ______.


  (4)The writer suggests that ______.


  明确了阅读理解题的考查要点以后,我们现在来研究破解阅读理解题的方法和技巧。


  如何获取段落的主旨和大意?


  最有效的办法是找出主题句。一篇文章(或一段文章)通常都是围绕一个中心意思展开的。而这个中心意思往往由一个句子来概括。这个能概括文章或段落中心意思的句子叫做主题句。因此,理解一个段落或一篇文章的中心意思首先要学会寻找主题句。主题句一般具有三个特点:


  (1)表述的意思比较概括,相对其主句来看,这种概括性更为明显。


  (2)句子结构较简单,多数都不采用长、难句的形式。


  (3)段落中其它的句子必定是用来解释、支撑或发展主题句所表述的主题思想。


  大部分主题句情况有三种


  1主题句在段首或篇首


  主题句在段首或篇首的情况相当普遍。一般新闻报道、说明文,议论文大都采用先总述,后分述的叙事方法。例如:2003年陕西省英语中考试题阅读材料B的第一段:


  All living things on the earth need other living things to live.Nothing lives alone.Most animals must live in a group,and even a plant grows close together with others of the same kind.Sometimes one living thing kills another,one eats and the other is eaten.Each kind of life eats another kind of life in order to live,and together they form a food chain(食物链)。Some food chains become broken up if one of the links disappears.


  第一句即是主题句。这个句子概括了本段的中心意思,“地球上所有的生物要生存都离不开其它的生物”。后面讲述了大量的事实,“大部分动物必须成群的生活,甚至一种植物也要和其它同类的植物靠在一起生长。有时一种生物杀死另一种生物,一种生物吃另一种生物,而另一种生物被吃”。在列举了大量的事实之后,作者指出:如果这些食物链中的一个链环消失,所有的食物都会断掉。所有这些事实都是围绕第一个句子展开的。


  在这篇短文之后有一道考查主题的阅读理解题:


  59.Which of the following do you think is the best title for this passage?


  A.Animals B.Plants C.Food Chains D.Living Things


  根据主题句的意思,我们可以很容易判断:这篇短文最好的标题是Food Chains。


  2主题句在段末或篇末


  用归纳法写文章时,往往表述细节的句子在前,概述性的句子在后,并以此结尾。这种位于段末或篇末的主题句往往是对前面细节的总结,归纳或结论。例如2002年陕西省中考试题阅读材料A的最后一段:


  If you buy some well-made clothes,you can save money because they can last longer.They look good even after they have been washed many times.Sometimes some clothes cost more money,but it does not mean that they are always better made,or they always fit better.In other words,some less expensive clothes look and fit better than more expensive clothes.


  这段文章前面列举了两件事实:如果你买一些制作优良的衣服,你会省钱,因为这些衣服能穿得时间长一些。即使他们洗了很多次,仍然看起来很好。有时有些衣服花得前更多,但并不意味着这些衣服做得更好。最后一句话是对这两个事实的概括:有些价钱便宜的衣服比价钱贵的衣服更好看,更合身。段末这个句子就是主题句。


  3无主题句


  有时,一篇文章里并没有明显的主题句。这时我们应该怎样来确定文章的主题或中心意思呢?其实这也不难。我们可以首先找出每一段的中心意思,各段的中心意思往往都是围绕一个中心来展开的,或者说是来说明一个问题的。这个中心或这个问题就是这篇文章的主题或中心意思。


  请看江西省中考试题阅读理解A:


  Killer bees started in Brazil 1957.A scientist in Sao Paulo wanted bees to make


  more honey(蜂蜜).So he put forty-six African bees with some Brazilian bees.The bees bred(繁殖)and made a new kind of bees.But the new bees were a mistake.They didn’t want to make more honey.They wanted to attack.Then,by accident,twenty-six African bees escaped and bred with the Brazilian bees outside.


  Scientists could not control(控制)the problem.The bees increased fast.They went from Brazil to Venezuela.Then they went to Central America.Now they are in North America.They travel about 390 miles a year.Each group of bees grows four times a year.This means one million new groups every five years.


  Why are people afraid of killer bees?People are afraid for two reasons.First,the bees sting(叮)many more times than usual bees.Killer bees can sting sixty times a minute nonstop for two hours.Second,killer bees attack in groups.Four hundred bee stings can kill a person.


  Already several hundred people are dead.Now killer bees are in Texas.In a few years they will reach all over the United States.People can do nothing but wait.


  这篇短文表面看起来没有主题句,那末怎样来确定它的中心意思呢?按照上面的说明,我们先找出每一段的大意:第一段讲的是“killer bees”的产生。第二段讲的是“killer bees”的急剧增加。第三段讲的是人们害怕“killer bees”的原因。第四段讲的是“killer bees”已经杀死的人数和将来的状况。从这几段的大意可以看出这篇文章自始至终都是围绕“killer bees”这一中心展开的。换句话说,“killer bees”就是这篇文章的主题。


  在这篇短文的后面就出了一道这样的阅读理解题:


  59.The best title of the passage is ____________.


  A.How to make more honey B.Killer bees


  C.A foolish scientist D.How to feed killer bees


  毫无疑问,答案应该是:B。


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